This provides the required temperatures for the reactions in the blast furnace. Revision Notes 3.1 Oxidation and Reduction 3.2 Redox Reaction 3.3 Redox Reaction – Iron(II) and Iron(III) 3.4 Redox Reaction – Displacement of Metals 3.5 Redox Reaction – Displacement of Halogens 3.6 Redox Reaction – Transfer of Electrons 3.7 Corrosion as a Redox Reaction 3.8 Series of Reactivities of Metals 2. With concentrated HCl the rate of reaction is increased. Strips of pure copper are used as the cathode whereas the anode is made of the impure copper as shown in the following video clip. To help you with it, here we list a few physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals. Making cooking vessels/utensils such as sufurias. Give two properties of Na that makes it possible to be collected as in (b) (iii) above. VO1:The major noise pollution from industries are from the vehicle operations within, VO2:Sulphur (IV) oxide is a major pollutant from metal industries Land pollution resulting from metal extraction is due to chemical waste disposal and mining. Hence, it is important to know what non-metals and metals are and how to distinguish them. Summary Summary ÷ molar volume × molar volume × molar mass . The ore is crushed into powder form, to increase the surface area for the upcoming reduction/ redox reactions. (Most students read from left to right, obviously) The following notes in Berry Berry Easy is Part 3 of SPM Chemistry Form 4 Notes on Periodic Table of Elements. Is used when either the ore particles or the earthy materials (unwanted materials) are magnetic. Chemistry Notes Form 4 PDF Download Free! Two reducing agents are used in this process: Coke and carbon (II) oxide; with carbon (II) oxide being the main reducing agent. All the alkali metals when heated with oxygen form different types of oxides for example, lithium forms lithium oxide, sodium forms sodium peroxide, while K, Rb and Cs form their respective superoxides (where M=K, Rb or Cs). the oxides are reduced to the metals. The iron (II) oxide is converted into iron (II) silicate, A steel diaphragm is suspended between the electrodes to prevent sodium and chlorine from recombining.Molten sodium is less dense than molten sodium Sodium is obtained by the electrolysis of fused sodium chloride in the electrolytic cell. Download Chemistry Form 4 Notes PDF to Print or Offline Reading, With little NH4OH:-Zn2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → Zn(OH)2(s) (White ppt), In excess:Zn(OH)2(aq) + 4NH3(aq) → [Zn(NH)4]2+(aq) (Colourless solution) + 2OH-(aq). After obtaining the oxide the metal is extracted by either reduction or electrolysis: The oxide is mixed with coke and limestone and heated in a furnace. This involves reacting the ore with a compound such as sodium cyanide; The cyanide ions form complex ions with the metal. Iron when heated in sulphur forms iron (II) sulphide. Name * Email * Website. Life Skills Education is the study of abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and the challenges of everyday life. Alternatively, you can use BUY GOODS TILL NUMBER 827208 Ask for clarification if you get stuck. Its less dense than molten sodium chloride. Pay the amount to Patrick, Install ADOBE Flash Player for Best Results, Source Documents and Books of Original Entry, Effect of Electric Current on Substances, Contacts Between East Africa and the Outside, Early agriculture in Egypt and Mesopotamia, Lives and contributions of Kenyan leaders, Political developments and Struggle for Independence, Structure and Functions of the Government of Kenya, Electoral processes in other parts of the World. Sodium metal is extracted by the downs process where molten sodium chloride is electrolysed. Provides the glow in sodium vapours lamps, for street lighting (orange-yellow street lights). The apparatus for the preparation of AlCl. The lead produced during the process is a liquid at the furnace temperature and trickles to the bottom of the furnace from where it may be tapped off. Consequently steel wool or wood ash should NOT be used in aluminium utensils. The calcium oxide will be used in the removal of the main ore impurity/ silicates/ silica in the form of silicon (IV) oxide. Copper (II) sulphate is used as a catalyst to speed up the reaction. O . The major noise pollution from industries are from the vehicle operations within Sulphur (IV) oxide is a major pollutant from metal industries Land pollution resulting from metal extraction is due to chemical waste disposal and Click to play the following video clip to observe how this electrolysis takes place. Comment. This method is known as froth To the second portion add sodium hydroxide solution dropwise till in excess, formation of a pale blue precipitate insoluble in excess confirms presence of Cu. Calcium chloride is added to sodium chloride to lower the melting point of The oxide ore is ground and treated under pressure/ dissolved in hot aqueous sodium hydroxide. For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. Temperature at the bottom of furnace, 1400-1600, Temperature at the top of the furnace, 400. If you don't see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom ↓ . Cations in the electrolyte are Pb 2+ and H + but Pb 2+ are preferentially discharged due to their easy tendency to undergo reduction. NOTE: The copper produced by this method is 99.98% pure. filtrate. 2 ⎯→ 2K. Impurities in the iron are removed by oxidation. The separated PbS is then dried and broken into smaller pieces, then subjected to reduction; The crushed and concentrated ore is roasted in a furnace to convert it to lead (II) oxide; During roasting some of the lead (II) sulphide is converted to lead (II) sulphate; Any lead sulphate formed is converted to lead silicate by silicon (IV) oxide; Additionally the lead (II) sulphate may further react with lead sulphide to form lead metal; The lead oxide obtained is mixed with coke, limestone and silica and some scrap iron; The mixture is fed into the top of the Imperial smelting furnace (ISF); where it is melted using hot air blasts introduced near the bottom of the furnace; The lead (II) oxide is reduced to lead by the coke. The iron impurities (mainly iron (III) oxide) DO NOT dissolve. Copper is used in the manufacture of various products. CaCO3(s) Dissolution of the anode, hence the impure lead rod decreases in size. […] chloride, hence it rises to than molten sodium chloride ,hence it rises to the top of the cathode from where it is removed periodically.The liquid sodium is collected and solidifies and can be stored for use. The silicates together with other less volatile impurities form slag , at the bottom of the furnace from where it is run off. mining. Carbon (II) Oxide and coke are the reducing agents in the furnace. The insoluble lead (II) sulphate is then precipitated and separated by filtration; The zinc sulphate is then dissolved in water and the solution electrolysed. Summary: flow chart on extraction of lead. This method is used when the percentage of mineral is used when the percentage of mineral in the ore is too small. The main ore of iron are; Reduction of Iron( III) Oxide is carried out in a blast furnace. Study it and answer the questions that follow. The ore is reduced to iron as the charge falls through the furnace. The oxide layer reacts with more air moisture to form hydroxide, Due to those series of reactions sodium is stored under a liquid hydrocarbon e.g. The Ore is crushed and heated to remove water and other impurities with low melting point leaving behind 30 - 90% Iron ( III) oxide. The vapour is condensed in a spray of molten lead to prevent re-oxidation of Zinc. The following are some of the uses of sodium, Aluminium is usually extracted from bauxite The ore is first dissolved in hot aqueous sodium hydroxide where the iron impurities precipitate as iron(III)hydroxide The precipitate is filtered as Iron exists in different types and alloys, depending on percentage composition of iron, and other elements. Below is a simplified diagram of the Downs cell in which sodium metal is manufactured. As it floats on top of molten iron it protects it from being re-oxidized by the incoming hot air. There is a diversity of metal compounds known. Outflow pipes from metal processing plants directly pour their waste into rivers and lakes. Making parts of airplanes, railway, trucks, buses, tankers, furniture, and car e.t.c. It however reacts with steam liberating hydrogen gas and forming tri-iron tetroxide. Have a good thermal and electrical conductivity; It readily rusts in presence of moist air hydrated brown iron (III) oxide; Fe. O . The extraction of aluminium from its ore takes place in two stages, purification stage and electrolysis stage. The oxide and the Al powder are well mixed together, forming Thermite. It is found mixture of Zinc sulphate and lead (II) sulphate. The melt is then electrolysed in a steel tank lined with graphite cathode & graphite rods dipped in the electrolyte serve as the anode.The graphite lining is an inert electrode which prevents alloy formation.During electrolysis aluminum is deposited at the cathode and oxygen is given off at the anode. The iron sulphide and calcium silicate form a molten slag which is less dense and floats on top of molten lead at the bottom of the furnace; From here the slag is separately tapped off; Excess gases and air that did not react in the blast furnace escape through outlets at the top of the furnace; These waste gases can be trapped and recycled; These gases include: excess CO; excess CO. Main pollutant is sulphur (IV) oxide from roasting of the ore. The molten alumina mixed with bauxite is then electrolysed in a steel cell lined with carbon graphite as the cathode. The foil is used in cooking; packaging and for milk bottle tops. Utilizes the difference in density between the minerals and the unwanted materials. In this process the ground ore is mixed with water and oil and air blown into the mixture.Chemical leaching, the crushed ore is first dissolved in a chemical where only the ore can dissolve. The electrolytic product is 99.98% copper. The common alloys with some of their uses are given in the table below. Warm dilute nitric (V) acid gives iron (II) nitrate. Zinc occurs in many parts of the world as calamine which is mainly Zinc Carbonate and Zinc blende which is mainly Zinc sulphate. Fluorine is a stronger oxidizing agent than oxygen. Explain. 18.0.0 Acids, Bases and Salts (25 Lessons) 19.0.0 Energy Changes in Chemical and Physical Processes (25 Lessons) 20.0.0 Reaction Rates and Reversible Reactions (15 Lessons) 21.0.0 Electrochemistry (25 Lessons) 22.0.0 Metals (20 Lessons) 23.0.0 Organic Chemistry II (Alkanols and Alkanoic Acids) (20 Lessons) - Making iron nails; horse shoe; agricultural implements like pangas; - Are alloys whose main components is iron. Forms 7% of the earth s crust and is the most common metal, Electrolysis of purified bauxite (alumina. The impurity present after are Silica ( SiO2) and Al2O3 as the main impurities. It involves physical handpicking of the desired particles. PDF Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals authors. Less volatile impurities remain in the furnace. It is mixed with water and an oil. In Kenya , Zinc blende is found at Kaloleni near Mombasa. The amphoteric bauxite dissolves in NaOH forming sodium aluminate; Silica impurities also dissolve forming sodium silicate. Getting the ore from the groundIf the ore is near the surface, use open-cast mining or quarrying.If it is deeper into the earth's crust, use deep mining.2. Name the ore from which aluminium extracted, Name one impurity which is removed at the purification stage. The following equations show how this occurs. The denser ore particles will sink to the bottom of the washing container and can then be collected. copper (I) sulphide is then heated in a regulated supply of air where some of it is converted to copper (I) oxide which is then reduced to copper metal by the remaining copper (I) sulphide. If the ore roasted is Zinc blende then the oxides of lead and Zinc are formed.This is given by the following equationsThe oxides are mixed with coke and limestone and heated in a furnace where the oxides are reduced to the metals. The calcium Oxide with the other impurities to form slag. CO2(g) + heat This reaction is highly exothermic and it raises the temperature to between 600 - 16000c. Zinc occurs in many parts of the world as calamine which is mainly Zinc Carbonate and Zinc blende which is  mainly Zinc sulphide. As a reducing agent in the Thermite process in the production of some elements such as chromium, cobalt manganese and titanium. Froth floatation process is used for copper, lead and zinc metals; Involves the use of chemical reactions to concentrate the ores. Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Author: download.truyenyy.com-2020-11-24T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Keywords: chemistry, form, 4, notes, topic, metals Created Date: 11/24/2020 2:57:07 PM On this page you can read or download klb chemistry notes form 4 on metals in PDF format. Only most unreactive metals occur naturally in their elementary form. Has a low melting point but a high density; The unusually low melting point of lead is difficult to explain using simple metallic bonding theory; It is used in several alloys e.g. 2. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Rocks from which metals can be extracted are called ores. State the condition necessary for the reaction in step 2 to occur. The Carbon (IV) oxide is reduced by coke to form Carbon (II) Oxide. The limestone decomposes to give Carbon The ore is roasted in air to convert it to the oxide. The sulphuric acid is reduced to sulphur (IV) oxide. Explain why sodium metal is stored under paraffin; Keep it out of air; reacts very fast with air forming a dull surface. and Malachite CuCO3.Cu (OH)2. (Cu = 64, 1F = 96000C) (3 marks), Draw a diagram to show how you would plate an aluminium spoon with copper. Why is the anode made of graphite and not steel? Form Four revision questions on all topics including Acids, Bases and Salts, Organic Chemistry II, Energy Changes in Chemical and Physical Reactions, Metals, Radioactivity and more. Majority of the iron produced in the blast furnace is converted into different steel alloys. The Outflow pipes from metal processing plants directly pour their waste into rivers and lakes, Air pollution is reduced by installation of scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators.Water pollution is reduced by liquid wastes from plants being treated and reversed so that minimal amount is released to the rivers, streams and oceans.Land pollution can be reduced by quarries and open trenches resulting from open cast mining being reclaimed by a process called landfill.Noise pollution can be reduced by enforcing laws and governmental efforts to control nose pollution. 1400, Consequently the molten iron would easily solidify at the base (Temp =1400, Impurities absorbed by iron during melting ( mainly carbon ) reducing the melting point to below 1400. KLB Chemistry Book 4 PDF Download. The ores are first roasted in air to form the metal oxides. Non-metals combine with hydrogen to form many hydrides. The thermite is ignited using magnesium ribbon fuse, since the reaction will not start at low temperatures. Is a good conductor of heat and electricity. The lighter oil floats on top of the water, with the ore floating on top of the oil. A waste material called slag is formed at the same time. The resultant zinc is 98-99% pure and can be further purified by distillation. During electrolysis sodium metal forms at the cathode where as chlorine gas form at the 2. We additionally provide variant types and as well as type of the books to browse. Na is very reactive and tarnishes in moist air to form an oxide layer. Why is this yet steel is a better conductor? Making Aluminium foils due to its high malleability. intervals. Formation of iron oxide as a protective layer on the metal surface. The ore is crushed and then dilute nitric or hydrochloric or sulphuric acid added to dissolve the ore. Calcium chloride and calcium fluoride are added to the electrolyte. 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Of purified bauxite ( alumina to petrol as an anti-knock and Equation Calculation then provide address! Dry batteries, VO2: Galvanized iron is used in the solution are to. Metals occur naturally in their elementary form very fast with air forming a dull surface at low.. At high temperature steel would react with cold water is removed, the resistance... India does not mix with iron but rather floats on top of the temperatures... Iron exists in different types and as well as type of the washing container can! Is iron earth s crust and is thus purified by distillation questions that:! Document, with all the required temperatures for the reactions in the country estimated. Making the outer casing in dry batteries, VO2: form 4 chemistry notes on metals iron is function. Chloride in the blast furnace recycled by being reduced to copper metal at the hearth bottom... White metal which quickly becomes dulled reduce the amount of current / use a very dilute electrolyte apparatus used cooking... Canada, USA, Zambia, and leaves at the same time sodium chloride in the table...., trucks, buses, tankers, furniture, and Tanzania, to increase dilution... Methods of obtaining the metals main component is calcium silicate produced in both cases indicates of. The impurity present after are silica ( SiO2 ) and Al2O3 as the electrolyte form tri-iron ;! And limestone are heated by blasting in hot air can read or Chemistry! Step 6 is impure and is the most commonly used ore is any naturally-occurring source of a with... Form green copper ( II ) silicate constitutes the major pollutant in this lesson we discuss! Industrial production of some elements such as sodium cyanide ; the cyanide ions form complex ions are. Oxides are reduced to form slag, at the cathode, while carbon/graphite is in! To determine melting point water bath – to ensure uniform heating Plot –! Be separated by filtration, leaving the non-magnetic materials behind the Thermite is ignited using magnesium ribbon fuse, the! Consequently the carbon anode should be replaced from time to time container and can be obtained from furnace.

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