Anhydrous ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air and will rise in dry air. The rapid evaporation causes the temperature of the liquid to drop until it reaches the normal boiling point of -28°F, a similar effect occurs when water evaporates off the skin, thus cooling it. Careful consideration must be given to any design or application. At the same time, the pressure in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square inch (psi) to 110 psi. New refrigerants and system configurations for vapor-compression refrigeration Mark O. McLinden1*, Christopher J. Seeton2, Andy Pearson3 The high global warming potential of current refrigerants in cooling equipment based on the vapor-compression cycle has triggered a major effort to find and implement more environmentally benign alternatives. Ineffective refrigeration due to excess oil within the system, causing the system to work harder than necessary, thus stressing the system components. Assists employers and employees in identifying and controlling the hazards associated with the operation and maintenance of ammonia refrigeration systems. The refrigerants should be non poisonous to humans and food … and to facilities. lower limit for calculation: -50 C, 1 bar upper limit: 300 C, 500 bar. There are three major reasons for choosing ammonia as a refrigerant: Ammonia’s physical properties make it effective and efficient for large systems. eyes, throat, and breathing passages. Pressure: Temperature: Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of ammonia on the boiling curve. It’s origins as a refrigerant can be traced all the way back to the 1800’s and it was one of the first refrigerants used in a variety of applications. Ammonia is used as a refrigerant because * It's pressure is very low when evaporated to produce the temperatures needed for refrigeration. In very large cooling systems, like those in food processing facilities, ammonia is a common choice of refrigerant. It’s origins as a refrigerant can be traced all the way back to the 1800’s and it was one of the first refrigerants used in a variety of applications. Refrigeration grade ammonia is 99.98 percent pure and is relatively free of water and other impurities (maximum: 150 ppm water, 3 ppm oil, 0.2 ml/g non-condensibles). Ammonia is poisonous in high concentrations. In ice plants, as a refrigerant; In furniture industry, as a cleansing agent for furniture and glass surfaces. Remove contaminated clothing, but only after careful flushing and warming to prevent the previously mentioned problem of skin sticking to the clothing. Ammonia is one of the refrigerants most commonly used in the absorption-type air-conditioning systems. involved. This may result in a catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels. Oxygen levels of more than a few ppm in liquid ammonia or a few thousand ppm in gaseous ammonia can promote stress corrosion cracking in steels. It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. When applied to soil, it helps provide increased yields of crops such as maize and wheat. ammonia. the eye can occur depending on whether a spray or gas is Therefore ammonia cannot be used for small refrigeration systems. Ammonia in water solution is called However, even in small concentrations in the air it can be extremely irritating to the Volume : Internal Energy : Enthalpy : Entropy: deg-C : kPa : m^3/kg : kJ/kg : kJ/kg : kJ/kg*K: Temp. It results in a high refrigerating . Ammonia is substantially less expensive than CFCs or HCFCs; There are two key disadvantages to using ammonia as a refrigerant: It is not compatible with copper, so it cannot be used in any system with copper pipes. Exposure to ammonia vapor may cause: Skin damage depends upon the length and concentration of exposure and can range from mild irritation, to a darkened freeze-dry burn, to tissue destruction. Stress corrosion cracking proceeds more rapidly at high temperatures. It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. Ammonia, also known as R-717, is one of the oldest refrigerants. averaged over an 8 hour shift. If the plant is outside or on the roof of a building, the escaping ammonia can drift away without harming occupants. Ammonia is not, strictly speaking, a poison and repeated exposure to it produces no additive (chronic) effects on the human body. Power 22.7 kW each with air cooled condenser Two stage reciprocating compressor 4 plan in case of release. It gives a low refrigeration effect. change in the process safety information. Maintain the purge unit according to manufactures specifications. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. endstream endobj 636 0 obj <. As a result, anhydrous ammonia burns keep spreading until the chemical is diluted. When inhaled suddenly, it brings tears into the eyes. U.S. Department of Labor  |  Occupational Safety & Health Administration  |  200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. When inhaled suddenly, it brings tears into the eyes. Penetrating odor, soluble in water. Ammonia is a chemical consisting of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen. Safety. R-717, or Anhydrous Ammonia, is widely regarded as one of the most efficient refrigerants in the world. %%EOF Household ammonia is a diluted water solution containing 5 to 10 percent ammonia. Ammonia chemically combines with water to form ammonium hydroxide. Release of ammonia due to excess water within the system freezing, which causes broken pipes and equipment. It is readily available, inexpensive, operates at pressures comparable with other refrigerants and is capable of absorbing large amounts of heat when it evaporates. Liquid and gas ammonia expand and contract with changes in pressure and temperature. R-717, or Anhydrous Ammonia, is widely regarded as one of the most efficient refrigerants in the world. lower limit for calculation: -75 C, 0.08 bar bar upper limit: 130 C, 108 bar. Test and analyze the ammonia periodically for oxygen and water content. Anhydrous ammonia is easily absorbed by water. * It condenses at pressures that are relatively low too. Establish and implement written procedures tanks. It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. Higher heat transfer coefficient requires smaller area and lower pressure drop. Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of ammonia. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas or liquid and about 99.95% pure. Provide employees information pertaining to the hazards of Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. However, there are apprehensions and misconceptions due to toxic nature of Ammonia. Anhydrous ammonia is an alkali. This is a list of refrigerants, sorted by their ASHRAE-designated numbers, commonly known as R numbers. SI units. It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. 10 percent. In addition to liquidization, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia spray causes a freeze dry effect like frost bite when it hits the skin. e) r717 ammonia properties. they need to be using respiratory protection. or modified significantly enough to require a 647 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5CDCE694CA4D5C449FB80DD1256B10E7>]/Index[635 28]/Info 634 0 R/Length 79/Prev 267084/Root 636 0 R/Size 663/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream The spray is also capable of freezing clothing to N H H H Ammonia gas mixes with the humidity from the air, forms a mist and thus becomes heavier than air Ammonia as a substance is »greedy for water« 1 litre of water can absorb 520 grams of ammonia at 20 °C In dry air, ammonia gas is lighter than air and therefore rises ENGIE REFRIGERATION GMBH | AMMONIA REFRIGERANT 3. On the other hand, anhydrous ammonia is essentially pure (over 99 percent) ammonia. Liquid anhydrous ammonia in water and is frequently used as a water solution is called ammonia! 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