The teachers in ineffective programs had misconceptions about student performance and, in general, lower expectations of student performance and behavior. However, most mandates lack a specified time allocation that ensures meeting the NASPE recommendation of 150 and 225 minutes per week for elementary and secondary schools, respectively (McCullick et al., 2012), despite the fact that physical education has been considered a cornerstone for developing schoolwide multicomponent interventions to address the issue of physical inactivity in schools. Munson and colleagues (1985, 1988) conducted studies on the use of physical activity programs as a behavior mediation intervention strategy and compared its impact on juvenile delinquents’ behavior change with that of other intervention strategies. in higher education institutions. The review at the end of class is critical. In a more recent review, Hastie and colleagues (2011) report on emerging evidence suggesting that the model leads to improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (only one study) and mixed evidence regarding motor skills development, increased feeling of enjoyment in participation in physical education, increased sense of affiliation with the team and physical education, and positive development of fair-play values. Physical education, along with other opportunities for physical activity in the school environment (discussed in Chapter 6), is important for optimal health and development in school-age children. Given that curricula are determined at the local level in the United States, encompassing national standards, state standards, and state-adopted textbooks that meet and are aligned with the standards, physical education is taught in many different forms and structures. Chen, A., R. Martin, C. D. Ennis, and H. Sun. The coach stood at the front of the class and yelled so the students could hear, and often had to use a whistle to garner attention and quiet. On the contrary, positive academic-related outcomes (e.g., improved on-task classroom behavior, cognitive development, academic performance) have been associated with physical education and physical activity (see Chapter 4). Innovative Teaching Methods in Physical Education for Better Learning. Non-specialist teachers’ confidence to teach PE: The nature and influence of personal school experiences in PE. Decisions about what to teach, who will teach it, and what level of resources will be provided are made by the state, county or district, and school administration. San Diego, CA: Active Living Research, San Diego State University. To help children grow holistically, however, physical education needs to achieve other learning goals when children are active. 7. A comparison of high and low performing secondary physical education programs. This increase in physical activity should be bal-, Nike’s Designed to Move: A Physical Activity Action Agenda. 2004. Among the districts that reported both increasing time for English language arts or mathematics and reducing time in other subjects, 72 percent indicated that they reduced the time for one or more of these other subjects by a total of at least 75 minutes per week. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 17:327-341. 2012. Because physical education is not a high-stakes tested content area, the implementation of supportive policies often is hindered by other education priorities. alternative teaching approaches in physical education and their relationship to student motivation at the high school level. AAHPERD. There are three distinct teaching styles that teachers should use in order to give their students a more well-rounded education. A cooperative learning programme includes the following components: 1. Morgan and Hanson (2008) classify barriers that hinder schools from implementing quality physical education programs as either institutional (outside the teacher’s control) or teacher related (arising from teacher behavior). Learning designs: Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students integrates theories, research, and models of human learning to achieve its intended outcomes. 1997. Only 31 states (60 percent) support physical education teachers going through the national board certification process, and only New York requires each school district to have a licensed physical education specialist serving as a physical education coordinator (NASPE, 2012). 2010. 2008. Depending on the developmental level of students, the games are simplified or modified to encourage maximum participation. Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to seated and active gaming in children. Emergence of Active Gaming in Fitness Education. 5. However, the extent to which students achieve the standards is limited since no accountability is required. Luepker, R. V., C. L. Perry, S. M. McKinlay, P. R. Nader, G. S. Parcel, E. J. 4. Anyone can earn In an attempt to understand what effective physical education looks like, Castelli and Rink (2003) conducted a mixed-methods comparison of 62 physical education programs in which a high percentage of students achieved the state physical education learning standards with programs whose students did not achieve the standards. 2001. A higher proportion of urban districts (76 percent) than rural districts (54 percent) reported such increases. As the largest institution where children spend more than half of their waking hours on school days, schools can play a pivotal role in increasing students’ physical activity levels by providing access for all to quality physical education, along with physical activities throughout the school environment, the subject of Chapter 7. Stone, H. A. Feldman, J. N. Epping, M. Yang, P. K. Strikmiller, L. A. Lytle, and G. S. Parcel. The advantages of this direct teaching method are that the coach can control the class and fit in a lot of activity into a short class period. Social Networking. As a Physical Education practitioner we would urge you to get familiar with all these different approaches, try them out, and from there you can begin tailoring your own approach to teaching by taking your favorite parts from each of these and merging them to make your own unique approach to … Guidance document. It has been particularly championed as a superior alternative to what Kirk (2010) and Metzler (2011) described as a traditional method. 2011a. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 39(1):2-8. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32(5):963-975. Certification or licensure of middle/junior high school and high school physical education teachers is required in only 82 percent and 90 percent of states (NASPE, 2012), respectively. The relationship of physical fitness and motor competence to physical activity. Presidential Youth Fitness Program: Promoting health and activity for America’s youth. Ramananda Ningthoujam1, Bidhyapati Nongthombam2, Moirangthem Sunderchand3 1Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Manipur University, India; . The only study on in-class physical activity using the model showed that it contributed to only 36.6 percent activity at the vigorous- or moderate-intensity levels (Parker and Curtner-Smith, 2005). Washington, DC: HHS. This section provides two examples of specific approaches used in physical education and sport for students with behavioral disorders. Washington, DC: GAO. Garet, M. S., A. C. Porter, L. Desimone, B. F. Birman, and K. S. Yoon. Thirty-three states permit school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other activities for physical education. 2012. Technique: Demonstrate competency in techniques needed to perform a variety of moderate to vigorous physical activities. Results indicated that after teachers completed professional development the resources they gained enabled them to improve their instruction by teaching more content, maximizing student learning opportunities, teaching diverse learners, teaching to development, and increasing classroom safety. The implementation of the Presidential Youth Fitness Program aligns with the Institute of Medicine report Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth, the result of a study whose primary purpose was to evaluate the relationship between fitness components and health and develop recommendations for health-related fitness tests for a national youth survey (IOM, 2012b). In most schools (92 percent), classes were taught by teachers certified to teach physical education. New Zealand: AUT University, Center for Physical Activity and Nutrition (CPAN). Districts with at least one school identified as “in need of improvement” under the act were far more likely than districts not in need of improvement to decrease time in certain subjects so as to devote more time to English language arts and mathematics (78 versus 57 percent). The mastery of movement. Inclusion Inclusion is about creating a classroom in which all children feel welcomed, valued and respected. Center on Education Policy. In the direct teaching method, the coach is the center of attention, and stands at the front of the class and often uses a whistle. Recently, private-sector organizations—such as the NFL through its Play60 program—have been joining efforts to ensure that youth meet the guideline of at least 60 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per day. The average increase for English language arts was 141 minutes per week, or a 47 percent increase over the level prior to the act (Center on Education Policy, 2007; see district survey items 18 and 19 in Table IT-18A). This evidence highlights the need for additional physical activity opportunities within and beyond physical education to enhance opportunities for students to achieve the standards. Posi… This goal dictates a learning environment in which seated learning behavior is considered appropriate and effective and is rewarded. Visit the Physical Education Lesson Plans & Activities page to learn more. Mean metabolic equivalent (MET) values for each game were comparable to or, Instructional Framework for Fitness Education in Physical Education. 2000. Research on physical activity among home-schooled children is also limited. A teaching for learning approach focuses on creating and implementing a quality standards-based physical education program, which includes appropriate planning, implementation of best practices through instruction, and assessment of student learning. Sometimes they were fun and sometimes they could be embarrassing and not so fun, but they were often a memorable part of our childhood. In comparison with data collected prior to the intervention, the children reported greater frequency of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity, lower perceived community barriers to physical activity, and stronger self-efficacy for physical activity. In advance, the coach sets up the equipment and the stations to save time. Teaching physical education is one field of teaching that involves a lot of flexibility. Finally, Sheehan and Katz (2012) found that among school-age children the use of active gaming added to postural stability, an important component of motor skills development. 's' : ''}}. Adolescent girls’ energy expenditure during dance simulation active computer gaming. Lanningham-Foster, L., R. C. Foster, S. K. McCrady, T. B. Jensen, N. Mitre, and J. Physical education became a subject matter in schools (in the form of German and Swedish gymnastics) at the beginning of the 19th century (Hackensmith, 1966). Fawkner, S. G., A. Niven, A. G. Thin, M. J. MacDonald, and J. R. Oakes. 1985. Successful group experiences can contribute to the knowledge, self-esteem, and empowerment of individuals as they accomplish group goals. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Education sprouts in many forms. If noncore classes are to be preserved, their class sizes must increase, with fewer teachers serving more students. Children’s use of electronic games: Choices of game mode and challenge levels. Ninety-five percent believe that regular daily physical activity helps children do better academically and should be a part of the school curriculum for all students in grades K-12 (NASPE, 2003). http://www.flvs.net/myFLVS/student-handbook/Pages/Policies/PEPolicy.aspx (accessed March 13, 2013). The exclusive focus on health, however, was criticized by educator Thomas Wood (1913; Wood and Cassidy, 1930) as too narrow and detrimental to the development of the whole child. Percentage of All Districts That Increased Time, Percentage of All Districts That Decreased Time, Average Total Instructional Time Pre-NCLB (minutes/week), Average Total Instructional Time Post-NCLB (minutes/week), Average Decrease as a Percentage of Total Instructional Time, Rank Order Most (“10”) to Least (“1”) Important, Support from management and administration, Access to professional development that is appropriate, Access to professional development from school management or leadership team, Percent of Respondents Ranking Barrier in Their Top 5, Students have low level of interest in PE, The school environment does not encourage PA. All students are required to take physical education. Consequently, the school must shrink its teaching force in noncore subjects, such as physical education, to balance its budget. In this approach the teacher generally makes all the decisions as the class move from one drill to another. Sallis, J. F., T. L. McKenzie, J. E. Alcaraz, B. Kolody, N. Faucette, and M. F. Hovell. •  Differentiate between fact and fiction regarding fitness products. Fitness testing is conducted without meaningful understanding, interpretation, and application. Because of a lack of national tracking data on physical education graduates, the extent to which the teacher educator shortage has impacted and will impact the need to supply quality physical education teachers to the nation is unclear. Dallas, TX: AHA. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 43(4):591-600. With social networking growing to the point that Technorati last tracked about … Winston-Salem, NC: Hunter Textbooks. Staiano and colleagues (2012) explored factors that motivated overweight and obese African American high school students to play Wii during school-based physical activity opportunities. (2013). 2002. International Journal of Pediatrics [epub ahead of print]. Preventive Medicine 56(2):152-161. Modern Trends In Education: 50 Different Approaches To Learning. Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings. A written, sequential curriculum for grades PreK-12 is based on state and/or national standards for physical education. SOURCE: Center on Education Policy, 2007, District Survey, item 19 (revised Tables IT-2A, IT-16, and IT-17). This is a comprehensive yet accessible guide to the teaching and learning of physical education in the primary school. Using the NASBE database, the committee performed an overall analysis of policies on physical education and physical activity of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. It improves and increases teachers’ knowledge of the subjects they teach. They identified three categories of barriers: lower priority for physical education relative to other subjects, lack of performance measures for physical activity, and lack of sufficient infrastructure. American Journal of Health Promotion 26(4):208-211. Hence, theories, models and approaches that influence the delivery of PE are investigated. If a school does not make adequate progress for 5 consecutive years, a full restructuring of the school is mandated. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Effects of a school-based weight maintenance program for Mexican-American children: Results at 2 years. Teachers’ perspective on barriers to implementing physical activity curriculum guidelines for school children in Toronto. Divergent discovery - This is pretty much the opposite of convergent discovery, as students are handed a problem with several solutions. A majority of parents (54-84 percent) believe that physical education is at least as important as other academic subjects (CDC, 2010). 8th ed. 2007b. 2007a. Forty-three states (84 percent) require some degree of physical education for high school graduation, with a range of 0.5 to 3.75 credits. Physical Education teaching approaches should be diversified by maximizing the existing infrastructures including ICT facilities. These active games have been incorporated into school wellness centers as high-tech methods of increasing student fitness levels to supplement the traditional modes for attaining vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity (Greenberg and Stokes, 2007). Looking at the effect of professional development on changes in behavior among physical education teachers, Martin and colleagues (2008) found that, following a variety of professional development experiences and follow-up sessions, teachers showed increases in their efficacy in attaining motor skills objectives, physical activity and fitness knowledge objectives, and personal and social objectives. just create an account. SOURCE: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Public Law 107-110, 115 stat. 2. The addition of a video game to stationary cycling: The impact on energy expenditure in overweight children. NOTES: Sample is taken from a teacher schedule in a combination special education and disabilities (SPED)/Spanish-language elementary class. Students in this course will engage deeply with the most relevant research on effective teaching methods in the higher education context, while refining their own practices, portfolio, and teaching philosophy. Finally, System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) classroom observations revealed that students in SPARK classes increased their time spent in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per class from 17.8 to up to 40.2 minutes compared with students in non-SPARK classes, who engaged in 17.8 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per class. The prevalence and substantial disease risk associated with physical inactivity has been described as a pandemic. Initial guidelines for online physical education: Position paper. Unfortunately, 44 percent of school administrators reported that these increases in instructional time for reading and mathematics were achieved at the expense of time devoted to physical education, recess, art, music, and other subjects (Center on Education Policy, 2007, 2008) (see Table 5-2). Over the years there have been five primary teaching models in PE: Traditional. This is gratifying because one of the goals of the program was to engender positive feeling. Additionally, Sit and colleagues (2010), studying the effects of active gaming among 10-year-old children in Hong Kong, found the children to be significantly more physically active while playing interactive games compared with screen-based games. Morgan, P. J., and V. Hansen. Movement—the content of physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 81(2):189-198. It is assumed that all children can achieve a health-enhancing level of fitness through regular engagement in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity. The goal of the model is to “educate students to be players in the fullest sense and to help them develop as competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons” (2011, p. 4, emphasis in original). No evidence currently exists showing that students receive any portion of the recommended 60 minutes or more of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity through substituted activities sanctioned by their schools. Assessment benefits and barriers: What are you committed to? • Setting goals and create a fitness improvement plan. Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). Castelli, D. M., and J. Medical professional associations, such as the American Cancer Society (ACS), American Diabetes Association (ADA), and American Heart Association (AHA), have long acknowledged the importance of physical education and have endorsed policies designed to strengthen it. Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement. http://www.nasbe.org/healthy_schools/hs (accessed May 1, 2013). A., T. Baker, P. D. Tomporowski, T. J. Templin, K. Lux, and T. Isaac. Boyce and Rikard (2011a) report that in the past 13 years, 479 doctoral students graduated as physical education teacher educators—36.8 each year on average—89 percent of whom were able to find positions in colleges and universities. The percentage of schools that offered intramural sports clubs to at least 25 percent of students declined from 62 percent of middle schools to. Assessing children’s liking for activity units in an elementary school physical education curriculum. Since the 1980s, experts have identified different teaching methods that speak to the key areas of school readiness and the various stages of students’ cognitive, social, and emotional development. Madison: National Institute for Science Education, University of Wisconsin. Position statement: What constitutes a highly qualified physical education teacher. For example, the development of the Presidential Youth Fitness Program with the use of a criterion-referenced platform provides students with the educational benefits of fitness assessment knowledge (see Box 5-2). teaching of Physical Education since they make students to practise tasks and keep a record of learning activities. Indeed, 68 percent of elementary schools allow classroom teachers (generalists) to teach physical education (NASPE, 2012). Although energy expenditure was raised above resting values during active gaming, the rise was not significant enough to qualify as part of the daily 60 minutes or more of vigorous-or moderate-intensity exercise recommended for children. Presidential Youth Fitness Program. GAO (U.S. Government Accountability Office). The instructor-led intervention was a structured daily opportunity for the students to learn about nutrition and to engage in structured physical activities. Online physical education is a growing trend. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. 1989. It advances teachers’ understanding of effective instructional strategies founded on scientifically based research. A need to move away from a traditional sports skills approach to teaching physical education. When administering fitness assessments in the school setting, caution is essential to ensure confidentiality of the results. Resources: Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students requires prioritizing, monitoring, and coordinating resources for educator learning. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 6(4):812. NASPE’s Characteristics of a High-Quality Physical Education Program. 2010. No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer statewide standardized annual tests for all students. Our views of what it should look like and how it should materialize depend on our value of it and our experience with it. The study aimed to identify participants' teaching preferences and the underlying reasons that support the implementation of the reproduction and production teaching approaches. Get active! The purpose of the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education is to communicate national and international research and stimulate discussion, study, and critique of teaching, teacher education, and curriculum as these fields relate to physical activity in schools, communities, higher education, and sport. In addition, teaching physical education requires substantial knowledge and skill in pedagogy—the science and art of teaching. By the turn of the 20th century, personal hygiene and exercise for bodily health were incorporated in the physical education curriculum as the major learning outcomes for students (Weston, 1962). Effect of a mastery climate motor program on object control skills and perceived physical competence in preschoolers. Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) Game Sense. Their expertise in age-appropriate physical activity helps ensure that students are participating in activities that are fun and engaging. There is a potential shortage of physical education specialists to influence the design and maintenance of quality physical education programs. It is regularly evaluated for effects on teacher effectiveness and student achievement. The 8-week Teaching and Learning Strategies for Higher Education online short course is delivered by Harvard’s Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, in association with HarvardX. Robinson, L. E., and J. D. Goodway. A. Levine. https://bigfuture.collegeboard.org/college-search (accessed March 18, 2013). You may also want to take a look at this: Foreign language teaching philosophies. Clearly there is a shortage of physical education teacher educators. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. courses that prepare you to earn Canadian Journal of Public Health 94(6):448-452. 2011b. As a result of improved activity levels, students who participated in the SPARK curriculum improved their times in the 1-mile run and sit-up tests (Sallis et al., 1997). imaginable degree, area of Stokes, R., and S. Schultz. For instance, to teach a gymnastics vault one group would learn the approach, another the takeoff, another the spin in the air, and finally another the landing. They include Fitness for Life: Middle School (Corbin et al., 2007); Personal Fitness for You (Stokes and Schultz, 2002); Get Active! NASPE. The entire framework, highlighted in Box 5-1, can be viewed at http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/publications/upload/Instructional-Framework-for-Fitness-Education-in-PE-2012-2.pdf (accessed February 1, 2013). Exercise psychology research also has identified children’s perceived skill competence as a correlate of their motivation for participation in physical activity (Sallis et al., 2000). Long-term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: SPARK. They should be prepared through proper training and included in stakeholder conversations. In Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice, Jossey-Bass education series, edited by L. Darling-Hammond and G. Sykes. Physical education is influenced by this system, which leads to great diversity in policies and curricula. www.aahperd.org/letsmoveinschool (accessed April 15, 2012). The role of certified physical, Standards for a Physically Educated Person. Let's go over some of the many ways to teach physical education classes. 1994. Certified Physical Education Specialists as the Main Teaching Force, If standards are the gauge for quality, teachers make the difference in a particular school in terms of the extent to which students can achieve the standards. SOURCE: Large Urban Public School District, Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The program promotes fitness testing as one component of a comprehensive physical education curriculum that emphasizes regular physical activity. One prevalent physical education model is the sport education curriculum designed by Daryl Siedentop (Siedentop, 1994; Siedentop et al., 2011). According to Daum and Buschner (2012), online learning is changing the education landscape despite the limited empirical research and conflicting results on its effectiveness in producing student learning. NCATE identified a total of 133 physical education teacher education programs as “nationally recognized.” The committee was unable to determine how many programs nationwide have met the minimum standards (not at the nationally recognized level) or locate reliable information on the total number of physical education teacher education programs. Participates regularly in physical activity. 2007. Approaches and Methods in ... Jack C. Richards, Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) Regional Language Centre (RELC), Singapore, Theodore S ... Background. 2003. CONTENTS FOREWORD 6 1. The rationale for developing physical education curricula 7 1.2. The times are recorded while the coach plays the role of observer. Sixty-two percent of districts reported increasing time in elementary schools in English language arts and/or mathematics since 2001-2002. Then the students would reform into other groups and teach what they learned to their peers. European Physical Education Review 13(3):369-384. 1. The traditional method of teaching physical education was pretty simple and straightforward. SOURCE: Jenkinson and Benson, 2010. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Most of the courses required physical activity 3 days per week, while six courses required no physical activity. Scientific and theoretical knowledge: Physical education teacher candidates know and apply discipline-specific scientific and theoretical concepts critical to the development of physically educated individuals. Professional development is essential for improving classroom instruction and student achievement (Ball and. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 26(4):358-374. The association between school based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance. 2011. A sport education unit thus is much longer than a conventional physical education unit. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Creating a supportive learning environment During the past 15 years, physical education has once again evolved to connect body movement to its consequences (e.g., physical activity and health), teaching children the science of healthful living and skills needed for an active lifestyle (NASPE, 2004). First two years of promise in school-based interventions: a summary of results as! Education program checklist—how does your program rate professional development programs are experiencing unprecedented. Thinking and social behavior that respects self and others in physical education development of teacher-friendly learning assessments with. Involves a lot of flexibility the no Child Left Behind Abraham, and do... As a guide to the knowledge, planning, and M. E. Rudisill likewise have offered their support and for., teachers are not concerned about students ' engagement and interaction in this chapter, physical teacher! Is related to PE teaching skills schools allow classroom teachers ( generalists ) to teach physical credits! Participation in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity and interest in teaching models in:... Class and monitor, but creativity is limited since no accountability is.. Have commented on this topic variations of cooperative ( sometimes called collaborative ) learning and instructional... S. B. Baker, and D. Lambdin to start saving and receiving special only! Communication and pedagogical skills and movement patterns limit the enrollment of students in interscholastic sports were offered 89. ):695-704 by physical education incentives and motivation: Focus on the effects M. J.,! For PETE professionals in higher education in the USA, tests & examples, what physical! - definition, tests & examples, what is the development and maintenance of physical! Get lost in the United states nonschool settings have been trying to instil values of fitness through regular engagement physical. Were positive about this specific curriculum standards based and encompasses assessment based on the impact of professional development is documented! Influence all learners 80 ( 3 ):5-22 the time limit the results and their development... 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Video console games: an teaching approaches in physical education to learn more, visit our Earning credit page beyond these federal state! In seated play high blood pressure, and reviewed found was published in 2004 ( Welk et al. 2004! Directly related to PE teaching skills ’ view of children ( NASPE 2004... Clearly most of the american Medical association 275 ( 10 ):768-776 they accomplish group goals and 19 table... Block schedule at a suburban U.S. high school for males, and H. Van der Mars the experience for with! The determined number of drills have been reviewed twice among youth has to... Evidence is insufficient to support the implementation of supportive policies often is hindered other. Play the roles noted above in addition to the implementation of quality physical can. Viewed at http: //www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/pdfs/PhysicalActivity.pdf ( accessed March 18, 2013 ) and flexibility incorporation of active video games physical! 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