The rebels called the Manchus into the country. But Indian culture has not attained to a recognition of freedom and inward morality; the distinctions which prevail are only those of occupations, and civil conditions. As a feature of the court of Babylon it deserves to be remarked, that when Daniel was brought up there, it was not required of him to take part in the religious observances; and moreover that food ceremonially pure was allowed him; that he was in requisition especially for interpreting the dreams of the King, because he had “the spirit of the holy gods.” The King proposes to elevate himself above sensuous life by dreams, as indications from a superior power. The general form which the spirit of the Lamaistic development of Buddhism assumes, is that of a living human being; while in the original Buddhism it is a deceased person. It is, as we have seen, symbolizing Spirit; and as such, it endeavors to master these symbolizations, and to present them clearly before the mind. Besides, the Europeans, just because of their intelligence, have not yet been able to imitate the superficial and perfectly natural cleverness of the Chinese. copper) gates, its walls being a hundred feet high, and thick in proportion, defended by two hundred and fifty towers. These however have an immense number of regulations to observe – they may not eat meat, touch a dead body, drink out of a pool in which cattle or Europeans have drunk, not eat what others have cooked, etc. because the latter desired her as an inferior wife (for his lawful spouse must be a Persian) ; but sent him, under the name of his own daughter, that of Apries, who afterwards discovered her real name to Cambyses. Another source of information is the astronomical literature, which is of high antiquity. The mutations which history presents have been long characterised in the general, as an advance to something better, more perfect. The Phoenicians discovered and first navigated the Atlantic Ocean. The Hindoos have also an indistinct conception of this doctrine, inasmuch as with them the final attainment is absorption in the universal Substance. The next degree in advance of this Unity is Difference, maintaining its independence against the all-subduing power of Unity. The accounts of the Patriarchs attract our interest. Europeans assure us of the impossibility of wading through the morasses of Indian statements. This excepted, according to Herodotus’s account, immorality invaded Babylon only at a later period, when the people became poorer. In one of those that have been opened, there was found in the most central apartment a beautiful alabaster coffin; and on closer examination it was found that the bones inclosed were those of the ox. When the English had become masters of the country, the work of restoring to light the records of Indian culture was commenced, and William Jones first disinterred the poems of the Golden Age. The tombs of the Kings were in Persia Proper; and there the King sometimes visited his countrymen, with whom he lived in relations of the greatest simplicity. The obtuse self-consciousness of the Egyptians, therefore, to which the thought of human freedom is not yet revealed, worships the soul as still shut up within and dulled by the physical organization, and sympathizes with brute life. – The Persian Empire and its Constituent Parts. This Persian Empire, then – since it can tolerate these several principles, exhibits the Antithesis in a lively active form, and is not shut up within itself, abstract and calm, as are China and India – makes a real transition in the History of the World. The Shamans – priests of this religion – intoxicate themselves with strong drinks and dancing, and while in this state perform their incantations, fall exhausted on the ground, and utter words which pass for oracular. The traditions of the Arabs are very old, but are not attached to a political constitution and its development. With the Persian Empire we first enter on continuous History. The course of the World's History § 60. Characteristic of the Hindoo’s humanity is the fact that he kills no brute animal, founds and supports rich hospitals for brutes, especially for old cows and monkeys – but that through the whole land, no single institution can be found for human beings who are diseased or infirm from age. By way of introduction to such report it must give the history of existing enactments; or if the law in question affects foreign countries, a description of them is required. But, notwithstanding all these spiritual attributes, this divinity is something quite other than the God of Thought. It is an essential instrument in developing and determining the Constitution – that is, a rational political condition; for it is the empirical method of producing the Universal, inasmuch as it sets up a permanent object for the conceptive powers. Herodotus tells us that Memphis was referred to so remote a founder as Menes. As to Mathematics, they understand well enough how to reckon, but the higher aspect of the science is unknown. At first these were taken from the Sudra-Caste, which is not bound to observe so many ceremonies; but nothing could be done with them, they therefore betook themselves to the Cshatriya class. Holy places, where altars are erected, consist of four elevations, and one in the centre. With this Duality – abstract unity on the one side and the abstract isolation of the world of sense on the other side – exactly corresponds the double form of Worship, in the relation of the human subjectivity to God. In the latter, for instance, they continue to engrave the letters in wooden blocks and then print them off: they know nothing of movable types. Classes cannot be brought together from without; they are developed only from within. As long as the prince does not want money, he has troops; and neighboring princes, if they are inferior to him in force, are often obliged to pay taxes, but which are yielded only on compulsion. They therefore keep a strict watch on the husband of their beloved in every step and act of life, with the design of inflicting injury upon him if he commits a misdemeanor. Babylonia had its determinate share of territory, and human subsistence was there dependent on the course of the sun and the process of Nature generally. To obtain happiness, therefore, man must seek to assimilate himself to this principle by continual victories over himself; and for the sake of this, do nothing, wish nothing, desire nothing. Laplace has investigated their acquisitions in this department, and discovered that they possess some ancient accounts and notices of Lunar and Solar Eclipses; but these certainly do not constitute a science. As the Brahmins enjoy advantages over the other Castes, the latter in their turn have privileges according to precedence, over their inferiors. Thus there arises one pregnant conception, composed of many conceptions, in which each fundamental nodus retains its individuality, so that they are not resolved into a general idea. “Philosophy”, he says there, “isits own time comprehended in thoughts” (PR: 21). While they have thus attained an existence independent of Nature, they can also regard objects as distinct from themselves – as they are actually presented – in a definite form and in their real connection. The Greeks must be looked upon as the people in whom these elements interpenetrated each other: Spirit became introspective, triumphed over particularity, and thereby emancipated itself. Hegel. Hegel explicitly presents his lectures on the philosophy of history as a theodicy, or a reconciliation of divine providence with the evils of history. The Assyrian-Babylonian Empire, which held so many peoples in subjection, is said to have existed for one thousand or fifteen hundred years. Yet, as these peoples were so unequally disciplined – so diverse in strength and bravery – it is easy to understand how the small but well-trained armies of the Greeks, animated by the same spirit, and under matchless leadership, could withstand those innumerable but disorderly hosts of the Persians. It is related, that once when a Roman in Alexandria killed a cat, an insurrection ensued, in which the Egyptians murdered the aggressor. This presents itself to men first as the empire of death – to the Egyptians as the Realm of the Dead. But the Chinese do not recognize a subjectivity in honor; they are the subjects rather of corrective than retributive punishment – as are children among us; for corrective punishment aims at improvement, that which is retributive implies veritable imputation of guilt. The negative was conceived by Hegel as the motor of history. With this is connected the consideration that Egypt probably received its culture from Ethiopia; principally from the island Meroe, which, according to recent hypotheses, was occupied by a sacerdotal people. Translated: by H B Nisbet, Cambidge University Press.. The Emperor killed himself to avoid falling into the hands of his enemies, and with his blood wrote on the border of his daughter’s robe a few words, in which he complained bitterly of the injustice of his subjects. The Emperor always speaks with majesty and paternal kindness and tenderness to the people; who, however, cherish the meanest opinion of themselves, and believe that they are born only to drag the car of Imperial Power. As regards Assyria, we must observe, that it is a rather indeterminate designation. The morality which is involved in respect for human life is not found among the Hindoos. reaches to 2207 years before Christ, the Assyrian to 2221, the Indian to 2204. The hidden meaning – the Spiritual – emerges as a human face from the brute. At the head of the Persians and Medes, Cyrus made war upon Lydia and its king Croesus. First, historians are interested in providing conceptualizations andfactual descriptions of events and circumstances in the past. Sun, Moon, and five other stars, which seem to indicate the planets – those illuminating and illuminated bodies – are the primary symbols of Ormuzd; the Ainshaspand, his first sons. Many therefore call the Supreme Existence who is over the first mentioned deity, Para-brahma. Not less does every province and town, every mountain and river possess an appropriate Genius. Osiris, the Sun, the Nile; this triplicity of being is united in one knot. In the instance of the revolution that occurred in the middle of the seventeenth century, the last Emperor of the dynasty was very amiable and honorable; but through the mildness of his character, the reins of government were relaxed, and disturbances naturally ensued. The Chinese have as a general characteristic, a remarkable skill in imitation, which is exercised not merely in daily life, but also in art. By Herodotus he is depicted as a humorous monarch, who, however, did not always maintain the dignity of the throne. But judgment was passed on the dead by the living themselves; and that not merely in the case of private persons, but even of kings. Speciality – the involvement with limited Nature – is consequently abolished. From various statements, the year 1491 B.C. It is forbidden to pray to him, and to offer sacrifices to him in his own nature; for this would be to adore ourselves. The centre of the kingdom was then transferred to Memphis, not far from the modern Cairo; and lastly to Sais, in the Delta itself. Herodotus speaks of his conquests in Syria, extending even to Colchis; and illustrates his statement by the great similarity between the manners of the Colchians and those of the Egyptians; these two nations and the Ethiopians were the only ones that had always practised circumcision. Human will and activity here occupy the foreground, not Nature and its bounty. This, e.g., is the leading principle of the Gymnosophists, as the Greeks called them. • Introduction to the “History of Philosophy” • Introduction to the “Philosophy of History” • “The Master-Slave Dialectic” from “The Phenomenology” • “The Philosophical Propadeutic” Hegel’s lecture notes, 1808-1811 • Hegel’s Critics – a collection of 60 critiques of Hegel from 1841 - 2001 The Mongols, who are especially devoted to Lamaism – this modification of Buddhism – have great respect for all that possesses life. The Divine is not individualized to a subject, to concrete Spirit, but degraded to vulgarity and senselessness. It may be here incidentally remarked, that the number Five is regarded as fundamental among the Chinese, and presents itself as often as the number Three among us. Osiris – with Isis behind him – appears, holding a balance, while before him stands the soul of the deceased. The Zend People derived their name from the language in which the Zend Books are written, i.e., the canonical books on which the religion of the ancient Parsees is founded. The English, or rather the East India Company, are the lords of the land; for it is the necessary fate of Asiatic Empires to be subjected to Europeans; and China will, some day or other, be obliged to submit to this fate. If, in conclusion, we combine what has been said here of the peculiarities of the Egyptian Spirit in all its aspects, its pervading principle is found to be, that the two elements of reality – Spirit sunk in Nature, and the impulse to liberate it – are here held together inharmoniously as contending elements. Other Englishmen, who have devoted themselves to investigating the conception of Brahm, have thought Brahm to be an unmeaning epithet, applied to all gods: so that Vishnu says, “I am Brahm”; and the Sun, the Air, the Seas are called Brahm. • Foreword to “Hegel’s Logic” by Andy Blunden Spirit VI. Englishmen present at an act of this kind, say that in half an hour the blood streamed forth from every part of the devotee’s body; he was taken down and presently died. The first two Lamas preside over two distinct sects, of which the priests of one wear yellow caps, those of the other, red. The latter separate the anterior region – Bactriana and Sogdiana, occupying the plains of the Oxus – from the Chinese Upland, which extends as far as Cashgar. The Brahmin must rest on one particular foot in rising, then wash in a river; his hair and nails must be cut in neat curves, his whole body purified, his garments white; in his hand must be a staff of a specified kind; in his ears a golden earring. A Turkish slave was the ancestor of the Ghiznian race. In China, however, the distinction between Slavery and freedom is necessarily, not great, since all are equal before the Emperor – that is, all are alike degraded. On this depend harvest, the seasons of the year, the abundance and sterility of crops. The distinctions of class, like that [rigid] Unity in China, remain consequently on the same original grade of substantiality, i.e., they are not the result of the free subjectivity of individuals. Its ruins, the final result of immense labor, surpass in the gigantic and monstrous, all that antiquity has left us. The Genii have innumerable temples (in Pekin nearly 10,000) to which a multitude of priests and convents are attached. The one is the immersion in the sensuous – among the Babylonians and Syrians ; the other is the Spiritual phase, which is twofold: first as the incipient consciousness of the concrete Spirit in the worship of Adonis, and then as pure and abstract thought among the Jews. Now it is the interest of Spirit that external conditions should become internal ones; that the natural and the spiritual world should be recognized in the subjective aspect belonging to intelligence; by which process the unity of subjectivity and [positive] Being generally – or the Idealism of Existence – is established. Thus Xerxes, when the sea broke in pieces his bridges, had chains laid upon it as the wicked and pernicious being – Ahriman. Chapter II. 4. With the Empire of China History has to begin, for it is the oldest, as far as history gives us any information ; and its principle has such substantiality, that for the empire in question it is at once the oldest and the newest. 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